Based on the structural response and damage characteristics of airport terminal system under earthquake, the framework and theoretical model of HAZUS disaster assessment and direct economic loss are introduced. Taking an airport terminal subjected to an earthquake with earthquake intensity of 8 as an example, the potential damage probability of the earthquake is quantitatively calculated, and the direct economic losses are calculated according to the damage probability, and the property damage insurance advices are given. The results show that when the terminal is at the risk of the intensity of 8, each system of the building is in different damage probability, among which there are more systems in slight damage, the probability is as high as 33%, and the direct economic loss is about 15.3404 million Yuan. Finally, the insurance scheme is explored. This study can provide a reference for the risk decision of disaster prevention and preparedness of airport terminal buildings.